Correlations between in vitro and in vivo data (IVIVC) are often used during pharmaceutical development in order to reduce development time and optimize the. This presentation gives a bird’s eye view on Dissolution in context with IVIVC. It discusses various levels of Correlations currently in practice. Invitro Invivo study & their correlation shortens the drug development period, economizes the resources and leads to improved product quality. Increased activity.

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Physicochemical, binding, and ADME absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion data are presented in Table 2.

The pharmaceutical industry has been striving to find a ways correlatin saving precious resources in relevance to the budgets and increasing cost of drug development. This is the weakest level of correlation as partial relationship between absorption and dissolution is established since it does not reflect the complete shape of plasma drug concentration time curve, which is the critical factor that defines the performance of a drug product.

The most important origin of the variability seems to be the gut and liver metabolism of the drug [ 16 ].

BioMed Research International

In contrast, correlatikn buffered formulations, generic and reference alike, raised the gastric pH towhich enabled rapid dissolution of ATV. PBPK models for the prediction of in vivo performance of oral dosage forms. The similarity factor is a logarithmic reciprocal square root transformation of the sum squared error and is a measurement of the similarity in the percent dissolution between the two curves.

Golem Apparatus The instrument is a computer controlled artificial digestive tract, designed for dynamic dissolution testing of oral dosage forms and consisting of four compartments: The same principles of IVIVC used for oral extended release products may be applied for non-oral cotrelation such as parenteral depot formulations and ocrrelation drug delivery systems as well.

Peristaltic movement is simulated by a V-shaped grate, pressed down on the bags, which rocks from side to side, driven by compressed air. This predicted profile could act as a surrogate of the in vivo bioequivalence study.

In Vitro?In Vivo Correlation (IVIVC): A Strategic Tool in Drug Development

Such instruments usually involve only one or two compartments, and they functionally often address only a specific focus of a study, that is, drug precipitation, mechanical qualities of a dosage form, and so forth [ 2 ].


More than one dosage form is needed and if possible intravenous or solution is essential to calculate deconvolution. The deconvolution technique requires the comparison of in vivo dissolution profile which can be obtained from the blood profiles with in vitro dissolution profiles. Cumulative fraction of ATV dissolved in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum compartments.

From perspective of correkation, the Golem apparatus is one of the three most complex dissolution apparatuses described to date other two being TIM-1 and Dynamic Corfelation Model [ 3 ].

In case of the correlation options, the structure of Golem apparatus allowed treating different compartments separately, adding or subtracting the measurement results for each compartment. This was partially due to the fact that the simulated i. Due to the complex nature of the presented apparatus, any modification of the dissolution method can be easily performed.

The nature of post-approval changes could range from minor such as a change in non release-controlling excipient to major such as site change, equipment change, or change in method of manufacture, etc [ 24 ccorrelation, 42 ].

Mapping is a process which relates Critical Manufacturing Variables CMVincluding formulation, processes, and equipment variables that can significantly affect drug release from the product.

To overcome these problems it is desirable to develop in vitro tests that reflect can bioavailability data.

This process of obtaining a drug profile from dissolution results is known as convolution. To generate predicted time courses, the drug input profile is predicted based on In vitro dissolution data and the In vitro-In vivo relationship generated in step 2. Despite the previous modification of the profiles, the lower solubility of ATV in the presence of CaCO 3 and the resulting overall lower dissolution performance of the buffered batches caused that it was difficult to build a reliable model using jviv of buffered and nonbuffered formulations.

The logical basis for this correlation was the assumption that any dissolved portion of API in vivo would be immediately absorbed due to the nonlimiting permeability of ATV, which allows direct correlation of the ascending part corre,ation the dissolution and plasmatic profiles. The convolution and deconvolution methods assume that the system being modelled is linear but, in practice, this is not always the case.


In vitro – in vivo correlation: from theory to applications.

The drug is usually given in a crossover fashion with a washout period of at ivib five half-lives. The key procedure here was a deconvolution of a PK ocrrelation into the cumulative curve describing fraction absorbed in vivo. The lm base function was used: Thus from Figure 2it is to be noted that one should be able to establish drug profiles with cordelation profiles combined with the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug as describe in the example above.

Frequent samples should be withdrawn to obtain a smooth dissolution profile leading to complete dissolution within the dosing interval of the test product in humans. In vitro models for the prediction of in vivo performance of oral dosage forms.

But is a task that can be time consuming and complex [ 12 ].

The incorporation of time-scaling in the PDx-IVIVC equation allows this parameter to be estimated directly from the in vivoand vitro release data.

In some cases, time-scaling of in vitro data must be used, because In vitro dissolution and In vivo input may follow the same kinetics but still have different time-scales [ 622 ]. For oral dosage forms, the in vitro release is usually measured and considered as dissolution rate. Absorption should not be the limiting factor, if the solubility is not the limiting factor in comparison to the drug release, an IVIVC may be attempted.

Generally, the In vitro property is the rate or extent of drug dissolution or release while the In vivo response is the plasma drug concentration or amount of drug absorbed. The withdrawal of the medium and dissolved API was considered in the calculations. The instrument is a computer controlled artificial digestive tract, designed for dynamic dissolution testing of oral dosage forms and consisting of four compartments: Eur J Pharm Sci.