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In the second illustration figure 10Education is not depicted.

These rules and restrictions can be produced de facto: Help Center Find new research papers in: Skip to main content. In this paper I shall first outline those characters and objects most frequently put forward and employed to represent concepts and ideas connected to education and then those likewise used to stand for the word education itself.

This preference for a feminine personification in different modes is analyzed starting principally from the famous Iconologia of Ripa and the Iconologia cnstiana y gentflica by Castellanos de Losada, with the Dictionnaire iconologique by Lacombe de Prezel and the Iconologie by Gravelot and Cochin as intermediary influences.

One of them carries a compass in one hand and in the odier a rod ending in two linked hands. It is precisely through these latter two books, produced in a different context, that of the Age of Reason and Enlightenment, that it is possible to trace the influence of Ripa’s lamologia until at least the XDCth century. In one case they approach each other to embrace and in the other to exchange, as sign of understanding, the fruits and flowers carried by one of the Virtues in the former scene.

The former includes at least two inter-related aspects: Email address subscribed successfully. Sometimes, we also use a cookie to keep track of your trolley contents. The origin of Horapolo’s HiemgJhphica, from which this text is taken, is unknown. Horace, Odes, 1, 10, verses The book itself offers a range of possibilities and meanings.

Jean Chevalier (Author of The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols)

Droz,pp. A heavenly diccionwrio should fall on her, and the breasts spurting milk could well be suppressed”. These iconographie norms establish not only how certain characters and scenes from their lives are to be represented — for instance, the education of the Virgin whose iconographie representation, popularized from the XVIth century onwards, is based on Santiago of Voragine’s Legenda aurea, who for his part was inspired by the apocryphal Gospels3 — but also which objects, people or symbols should be employed to represent given feelings, virtues, vices, sins, liberal arts or academic disciplines, to cite the most common or significant aspects in the context of education.


Either way, the outcome is the same: One source, previously mentioned, is that of Athena- Minerva, sister of Ssimbolos and goddess of fruitfulness, wisdom, fertility, inventiveness, truth, active and industrious intelligence, and inspiration of civil, agricultural, domestic and military arts. Iconology and Education 83 – Physics “is a woman in classical draperies, seated at a table upon which stand various pieces of apparatus for experiments”.

Books by Jean Chevalier

For example, at loot. Illustration of the author’s private property.

The latter is “uranic seed which comes to fecundate the earth, masculine therefore and associated with the fire of heaven”. What is shown are the Virtues, just as they appeared in the previous picture with the addition of a plaque with the motto: Castellanos d e Losada, lconohgia cristiana y gentilica.

All mainstream modern browsers have cookies enabled by default, so if you’ve been directed to this page it probably means you’re slmbolos a weird and wonderful browser of your own choosing, or have disabled cookies yourself. Thereby, I try to draw attention not only to the various iconographie conventions, but also to their sources, to the concepts and ideas underlying given representations and to the general use of afeminine personification in order to represent education and other related terms.

Bearing in mind these exceptions and others that may be found, it might be said that education and odier related terms or ideas are generally represented through female figures. We never store sensitive information about our customers in cookies.

Subscribe to our newsletter Some error text Name. The scene includes a text chevalirr its upper part “Inspice cautus eris”: It is Education, only seemingly absent in the composition, which will bring “harmony”, “peace”, “brotherhood”, “mutual support”, and “the increase of other benefits and material goods”, as well as “order and happiness within and outside the home”.

Books by Jean Chevalier (Author of The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols)

This general pattern nevertheless has exceptions in both senses. In order to represent instruction or study masculine figures are used, but when academic disciplines, certain mental faculties or education itself are to be simbllos recourse is taken to a feminine figure, whether under the influence of the classical tradition or because of a spiritual enlightening, regenerative conception of it.


The one crowned with laurel is undoubtedly the great Stoic philosopher Zeno of Citium”. Let’s connect Contact Details Facebook Twitter. Education is, however, present through the Virtues as the “mother” slmbolos them all and in the explanatory text This text comments on and explains what is shown in the images: The second example — two colour pictures from the end of the nineteenth or the early years of the twentiedi century — likewise show the general acceptance of the iconographie patterns previously described and explain or highlight the difference between the masculine representation of instruction and the feminine one of education.

In this paper I first comment on those characters and objects most frequently put forward by iconographic conventions and employed to represent concepts and ideas connected to education, as well as those used to standfor the word education itself.


Please click the link in that email to activate your subscription. When the expiry date is reached your computer deletes the cookie. Cesare Ripa, Iconologa Milano, Tea,p. The author and date of composition of the Greek version, discovered inhave also been debated, although it is most probable that its author was Horapolo, the philosopher, who lived in Zeno’s lifetime, that is to say in the second half of the Vth century A.

Those mentioned above spear, shield, etc. The history of imagery is closely linked to that of ways of seeing.

In this case “her multicoloured robe represents die various sciences and branches of learning studied in an academy” figure 5. At her side is a boy learning to read from a book. The event here shows Democritus talking with Protagoras.

It can be observed mat in these iconographic representations devised by men, woman nowhere appears as a being to be educated.