basis of record Rudman, W. B. (). The Chromodorididae (Opisthobranchia: Mollusca) of the Indo-West Pacific: Chromodoris quadricolor. Find out what’s known about Sea Slugs, Chromodoris annae, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, Chromodorididae, including their world range and habitats, feeding. Assumed maximum length from Ref. Members of the order Nudibranchia are simultaneous hermaphrodites. Mating behavior: Both individuals darts their.
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Chromodoris annae is a species of sea sluga very colourful nudibrancha shell-less marine gastropod mollusc in the family Chromodorididae.
abnae This species of nudibranch is found in the central area of the Indo-Pacific region from MalaysiaIndonesia and the Philippines to the Marshall Islands. The branched gills and the rhinophores are orange to yellow. The main background color is bluish, the intensity of the latter varying from blue-grey to intense blue, slightly speckled by tiny black spots.
The blue dorsal side and the foot are bordered with a black line which can be discontinuous depending on the specimen. A black dash between the rhinophores distinguishes this species from similar species like Chromodoris elisabethina and Chromodoris westraliensis.
The mantle edge and the foot are bordered with white and orange to yellow lines in which the width and the color intensity can vary greatly from a specimen nanae another. This nudibranch feeds on the sponge Petrosaspongia sp. Taxonomy biology — Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.
The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming. There curomodoris some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized. They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants.
Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology, genetics, and cytology. He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, thus, Ernst Mayr in defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species.
This activity is what the term denotes, it is also referred to as beta taxonomy. How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has chroodoris called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species.
While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were chromodlris in agriculture ajnae medicine.
There are a number of chromodorris in scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics chromodris taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham.
The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Chromodiris led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from onwards. This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of amnae modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone.
Taxonomy has been called the worlds chromodori profession, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate. Animal — Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the group to the choanoflagellates.
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Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives and their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs, they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance, most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about million years ago.
Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates, vertebrates have a backbone or spine, and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, the remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone.
These include molluscs, arthropods, annelids, nematodes, flatworms, cnidarians, ctenophores, the study of animals is called zoology. The word animal comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, the biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish, insects, and humans.
Aristotle divided the world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification. In Linnaeuss original annaw, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Insecta, Pisces, Amphibia, Aves, and Mammalia.
Since then the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, inErnst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms, Metazoa and Protozoa. The protozoa were later moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa, thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia.
Description & Behavior
Animals have several characteristics that set apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, which separates them from bacteria and they are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae.
They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls. All animals are motile, if only at life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals. With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges and Placozoa and these include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals. Mollusca — The molluscs compose the large phylum Mollusca of invertebrate animals.
Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats and they are highly diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and in habitat. The phylum is divided into 9 or 10 taxonomic classes. The gastropods are by far the most numerous molluscs in terms of classified species, the three most universal features defining modern molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion, the presence of a radula, and the structure of the nervous system.
Other than these things, molluscs express great morphological diversity, so many textbooks base their descriptions on an ancestral mollusc. This has a single, limpet-like shell on top, which is made of proteins and chitin reinforced with calcium carbonate, the underside of the animal consists of a single muscular foot. Although molluscs are coelomates, the coelom tends to be small, the main body cavity is a hemocoel through which blood circulates, their circulatory systems are mainly open.
The generalized mollusc chromovoris two paired nerve cords, or three in bivalves, the brain, in species that have one, encircles aannae esophagus. Most molluscs have eyes, and all have sensors to detect chemicals, vibrations, the simplest type of molluscan reproductive system relies on external fertilization, but more complex variations occur.
All produce eggs, from which may emerge trochophore chrommodoris, more complex veliger larvae, good evidence exists for the appearance of gastropods, cephalopods and bivalves in the Cambrian period to Molluscs have, for centuries, also been the source of important luxury goods, notably pearls, mother of pearl, Tyrian purple dye and their shells have also been used as money in some preindustrial societies. Mollusc species can also represent hazards or pests for human activities, the bite of the blue-ringed octopus is often fatal, and that of Octopus apollyon causes inflammation that can last for over a month.
Stings from a few species of large tropical cone shells can also kill, schistosomiasis is transmitted to humans via water snail hosts, and affects about million people. Snails and slugs can also be serious pests, and accidental or deliberate introduction of some snail species into new environments has seriously damaged some ecosystems.
The scientific study of molluscs is accordingly called malacology, as it is now known these groups have no relation to molluscs, and very little to one another, the name Molluscoida has been abandoned. The most universal features of the structure of molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion.
Gastropoda — The Gastropoda or gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, are a large taxonomic class within the phylum Mollusca. The class Gastropoda includes snails and slugs of all kinds and all sizes from microscopic to large, there are many thousands of species of sea snails and sea slugs, as well as freshwater snails, freshwater limpets, land snails and land slugs.
The class Gastropoda contains a vast total of named species, second only to the insects in overall number, the fossil history of this class goes back to the Late Cambrian. There are families of known, of which are extinct.
Gastropoda are a part of the phylum Mollusca, and are the most highly diversified class in the phylum, with 65, to 80, living snail. The anatomy, behavior, feeding, and reproductive adaptations of gastropods vary significantly from one clade or group to another, therefore, it is difficult to state many generalities for all gastropods. The class Gastropoda has an extraordinary diversification of habitats and those gastropods without a shell, and those with only a very reduced or internal shell, are usually known as slugs, those with a shell into which they cannot withdraw are termed limpets.
In a number of families of species, such as all the various limpets, the shell is coiled only in the larval stage, in the scientific literature, gastropods were described under gasteropodes by Georges Cuvier in At all taxonomic levels, gastropods are second only to the insects in terms of their diversity, Gastropods have the greatest numbers of named mollusc species. However, estimates of the number of gastropod species vary widely. The number of species can be ascertained from estimates of the number of described species of Mollusca with accepted names.
But an estimate of the number of Mollusca, including undescribed species, is aboutspecies. The estimate of 85, molluscs includes 24, described species of terrestrial gastropods, different estimates for aquatic gastropods give about 30, species of marine gastropods, and about 5, species of freshwater and brackish gastropods. The total number of living species of snails is about 4, There are recently extinct species of gastropods,18 species that are now extinct in the wild and 69 possibly extinct species, the number of prehistoric species of gastropods is at least 15, species.
Some of the familiar and better-known gastropods are terrestrial gastropods and some live in freshwater. Gastropods have a distribution from the near Arctic and Antarctic zones to the tropics.
Doridoidea chromodoriz The word Doridoidea comes from the generic name Doris, which was in turn copied from the name of the sea nymph, Doris, in Greek mythology. Johnson in has shown that Cadlina does not belong to the chromodpris Chromodorididae and she has therefore brought back the name Cadlinidae from synonymy with Chromodorididae. But these names can still be found in publications and on the internet.
Cryptobranch dorid nudibranchs, are sea slugs within crhomodoris clade Doridacea. The cryptobranchs include the genera that are regarded as valid. A phylogenetic analysis and systematic revision of the cryptobranch dorids, zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Data related to Doridoidea at Wikispecies. Chromodorididae — The Chromodorididae, or chromodorids, are a taxonomic family of colorful, sea slugs, dorid nudibranchs, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Doridoidea.
Although, they have a distribution, chromodorris species are found in the Indo-Pacific chromodori. A scientific paper published infound the most widespread chromodorid genera, the family Cadlinidae Bergh, has been considered a synonym of the Chromodorididae. The chromodorid nudibranchs without Cadlina are now monophyletic and turn out to be a sister to the family Actinocyclidae.
Cadlina and Aldisa are the two chromoodoris currently classified in the Cadlinidae. A comprehensive phylogeny of the chromodorid nudibranchs found every one of the 14 traditional chromodorid genera were either non-monophyletic, additionally, both the monotypic genera Verconia and Diversidoris are nested within clades. All Chromodorid nudibranchs feed on sponges.
Chromodoris — Chromodoris is a genus of very colourful sea slugs or dorid nudibranchs, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Chromodorididae. A molecular phylogeny of the family Chromodorididae resulted in this genus being restricted to a number of species than formerly. Scanning electron microscope studies of gastropod radulae, Rudman W.
Chromooris, the Chromodorididae of the Indo-West Pacific, a review of the genera. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 81, page, Vaught, a classification of the living Mollusca. W, opisthobranch molluscs of Hong Kong, Part 1. Mollusca, in, Costello, M. European register of marine species, a check-list of the species in Europe. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,50, pp.