First Chapter. Basically, the Natyashastra documents the history behind the development of the arts in India; it is a theater and dance treatise of national. Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. Book: Natya Shastra (with English Translations) Author: Bharat Muni Translator: Manomohan Ghosh M.A., Ph.D. Published by: Asiatic Society.

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By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. For example, in some traditions the actor speaks or recites his lines, while in another style the actor only embodies the role character while a singer or a narrator takes care of antya vacika or verbal aspect of the performance.

Humanism and the Humanities in the Twenty-first Century. It provided the foundation of theatrical and literary works that followed, which shaped the post-Vedic culture. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The classical period In South Asian arts: The contents of the Natyashastrastates Susan Schwartz, are “in part theatrical manual, part philosophy of aesthetics, part mythological history, part theology”. Bharata refers to bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform, and the rasas emotional responses that they inspire in the audience.

Sanskrit Drama in Performance. But what is really more interesting is the information that Bharata provides as to how drama and dramaturgy were brought to the mortal world. Drishtaphala [visible fruits] like banners or material rewards do not indicate success of a play production. General considerations Hindu dance In dance: The Natyashastra thus gives much space to the construction of a play.

All the three works speak of the glory of India and proclaim to the world that Indian education did not stop bbharata the scriptures and the philosophies. The document is difficult to date and Bharata’s historicity has also been doubted, some authors suggesting that it may be the work of several persons.


Facial technique is central to the expression of the rasa mood, and it can even be developed to the level where the actor can express joy with one half of his face and sorrow with the other.

His or her gaze must follow the hand movements, while the facial expression then gives meaning to the gesture. Just like the taste of food, states Natyashastrais determined by combination of vegetables, spices and other articles such as sugar and salt, the audience tastes dominant states of a drama through expression of words, gestures and shawtra. The context for this natyaa state is provided by text describing the lovers, appropriate music, costumes, make-up system etc.

All these leading and accessory emotions, as well as voluntary and bhqrata actions, aim to create the sentiment of love in the audience. Love the god and hate the demon. Group dances or individual dances could be introduced into a drama whenever appropriate.

He considers music under two heads— instrumental and vocal. Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed.

Special directions are also given regarding different kinds of loving and pining heroes. He meticulously describes the art of such expressions in stylised tones and gestures suiting the status of the character.

Be you bhartaa, demon, king, queen, servant, you have to put on the prescribed make-up, costume, jewellery, weapons, et al. Combined with an epic story, tending to virtue, wealth, joy and spiritual freedom, it must contain the significance of every scripture, and forward every art.

Natya Shastra

The compilation of this treatise dates back most probably to the second century AD, although the tradition formulated in it was older. In Indian theatre and dance, various combinations of mudras permit the dancer-actor to express himself or herself with distinct and nuanced language of gestures. These forms of encouragement are bound to inspire the actors on the stage to perform their duties to their utmost satisfaction.


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The Natyashastra is the oldest surviving ancient Indian work on performance arts. The Natyashastra is, states Emmie Te Nijenhuis, the oldest surviving text that systematically treats “the theory and instruments of Indian music”.

Natyashastra | Indian drama treatise |

Its many chapters contain detailed treatments of all the diverse arts that are embodied in the classical Indian concept of the dramaincluding dance, music, poetics, and general aesthetics.

The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here:. Implications of Indian aesthetics for poetics and rhetoric”. It lists not only the costumes, makeup, gestures, and body positions but also any plots considered unsuitable, and it is the most complete document of stagecraft ever compiled. The Vedic sacrifice yajna is presented as a kind of drama, with its actors, its dialogues, its portion to be set to music, its interludes, and its climaxes.

Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources.

Bharata and his Natyashastra | | Asian Traditional Theatre & Dance

The analysis of body forms and movements also influenced sculpture and the other arts in subsequent centuries. Bharata is considered the father of Indian theatrical art forms. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Bharaa the Divine in India. Ayurveda Dhanurveda Natya Shastra Sthapatyaveda.