Purchase your copy of ASTM E – 02() as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the official BSI Shop. All BSI British Standards. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM E at Engineering ASTM E – E – 02 The test methods provide for reporting of specic, distinctive informati.
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The use of these is described in detail in Methods E Results will be incorporated here when available. The percent of the total intercept length represented by the intercept length in each class interval was then calculated by dividing each value in the seventh column by the total intercept length For the coarse grain size, the number of intercepts totaled 13, and the intercept length totaled An example photomicrograph of a cross-section condition appears in Fig. If microscopic xstm is subsequently necessary, individual specimens must be taken to allow estimation of area fractions for the entire product cross-section, and to allow determination of grain sizes representing the entire cross-section as well.
The values from this calculation were entered in the seventh column of Table X2.
ASTM E – 02 Standard Test Methods for Characterizing Duplex Grain Sizes
Begin by outlining the distinct grain size regions in a given image, either on a transparent overlay placed over the projected image, or directly on a photomicrograph. These items are briey described below, under the headings of the specic procedures to which they apply. Such a method is subject to considerable error.
Examples of random duplex grain sizes include: Further suppose that measurements indicate an average f1181 of that surface layer of 1. However, these steels may also exhibit a bimodal grain size condition solely within the ferrite grain structure.
MSQ ASTM Grain Size Calculation, Grain Size Measurement
An additional button, “Duplex”, is found at the bottom of the control panel. Of these, the Comparison Procedure is the simplest, but offers the least precision. An example of that bimodal ferrite grain size is shown in Fig.
Assigning an average grain size value to a duplex grain size specimen does not adequately characterize the appearance of that specimen, and may even misrepresent its appearance. The operator can set any size field area using the Set Field button. Estimate the area fraction for the grain size region being evaluated as the number of grid points falling within the region, divided by the total number of grid points that lie within the total image outline the grid must be large enough to completely cover the total image.
The grid should consist of equally spaced points formed by the intersection of ne lines. The entire macroetched cross-section should be used as a basis for estimating area fractions occupied by distinct grain sizes, if possible.
One, the Direct Measurement Procedure see 8. These data may asfm used to assess the nature of the observed grain size distribution, and to determine mean intercept lengths and area fractions for distinct segments of a total distribution.
The histogram suggests that the specimen evaluated contains more than a single distribution of grain sizes. All results may be erased by clicking on the “Erase All Results” button. A tube whose wall thickness is small compared to its outside diameter may be treated as equivalent to a product of rectangular cross-section, in that a surface layer of a given depth at 5 the outside diameter covers essentially the same area as a layer of the same depth at the inside diameter.
An example photomicrograph of the wide-range condition appears in Fig.
However, those grain size and area fraction values are determined e118 examination of the entire area of the specimen, not by examination only of the eld shown in the photomicrograph. Sampling and Test Specimens 7. Examples of random duplex grain sizes include: Arbitrary Division 1 2 1 1 1 1 Coarse Grain Size no.
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Note that it is not necessary to resolve the individual ne grains in the image. For example, averaging two distinctly different grain sizes may result in reporting a size that does not actually exist anywhere in the specimen. These procedures will be more difficult to apply than the Comparison Procedure of E, but will offer greater precision. An example photomicrograph of the banding condition appears in Fig.
ASTM E1181 – 02(2015)
Duplex grain structures for example, multiphase alloys are not ashm duplex in grain size, and as such are not the subject of these methods. The most precise estimate of the area fractions occupied by each grain size will be obtained by evaluating the entire surface of that specimen.
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Apply this procedure to projected images from a microscope, or to photomicrographs. Any estimates of area fractions arising from this procedure are valid for an entire specimen only if they fulll the requirements of 8.
If microscopic examination is subsequently necessary, individual specimens must be taken to allow estimation of area fractions for the entire product asm, and to allow determination of grain sizes representing the entire crosssection as well. For the coarse grain, the corresponding intercept length of Examples of topological duplex grain sizes include: The software provides fast and accurate detection of grain boundaries or grain face areas. If duplex grain size is suspected in a product too large to be polished and etched as a single specimen, macroetching should be considered as a rst step in evaluation.
An example of such a plot is shown in Fig.