Academic phrase bank 1. The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers. It makes explicit the more common. The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers. . In a recent study (Davis and Morley, ), 45 academics from two British universities . Dr. John Morley, who is Director of University-wide Language Programmes, wrote The Academic Phrasebank to help both writers of English as a second.

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Academic Writing – App Academic Word List sub The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers. Other phrases are listed under the more general acafemic functions of academic writing. The resource was designed primarily for academic and scientific writers who are non-native speakers of English. However, native writers may still find much of the material helpful.

AuthorAID – Resource of the Week # Academic Phrasebank

In fact, recent data suggests that the majority of users are native speakers of English. The phrases, and the headings under which they are listed, can be used simply to assist you in thinking about the content and organisation of your own writing, or the phrases can be incorporated into your writing where this is appropriate. In most cases, a certain amount of creativity and adaptation will be necessary when a phrase is used.

The Academic Phrasebank is not discipline specific. Nevertheless, it should be particularly useful for writers who need to report their empirical studies. The phrases are content neutral and generic in nature; in using them, therefore, you are not stealing other people’s ideas and this does not constitute plagiarism. Most of the phrases in this compendium have been organised according to the main sections of a research report.

However, it is an over-simplification to associate the phrases only with the section in which they have been placed here. In reality, for example, many of phrases used for referring to other studies may be found throughout a research report. In the current PDF version, additional material, which is not phraseological, has been incorporated. These additional sections should be helpful to you as a writer.

This unit of rhetorical analysis is used as one of the main organising sub-categories of the Academic Phrasebank. Swales not only identified commonly-used moves in article introductions, but he was interested in showing the kind of language which was used to achieve the communicative purpose of each move. Much of this language was phraseological in nature.

The resource also draws upon psycholinguistic insights into how language is learnt and produced. It is now accepted that much of the language we use is phraseological; that it is acquired, stored and retrieved as pre-formulated constructions Bolinger, ; Pawley and Syder, These insights began to be supported empirically as computer technology permitted the identification of recurrent phraseological patterns in very large corpora of spoken and written English using specialised software e.

Phrasebank recognises that there is an important phraseological dimension to academic language and attempts to make examples of this explicit. Sources of the phrases The vast majority of phrases in this resource have been taken from authentic academic sources.

However, phrases from academic articles drawn from a broad spectrum of disciplines have also been, and continue to be, incorporated. Where content words have been included for exemplificatory purposes, these are substitutions of the original words. In selecting a phrase for inclusion into the Academic Phrasebank, the following questions are asked: When is it acceptable to reuse phrases in academic writing?

In a recent study Davis and Morley,45 academics from two British universities were surveyed to determine whether reusing phrases was a legitimate activity for academic writers, and if so, what kind of phrases could be reused. From acadeimc survey and later from in-depth interviews, the following characteristics for acceptability emerged. Some of the entries in the Academic Phrasebank, contain specific content words which have been included for illustrative purposes. These words should be substituted when phrasebajk phrases are used.

In the phrases below, for example, the content words in bold should be substituted: X is a major public health problem, and the cause of X is the leading cause of death in western-industrialised countries. The many thousands of disciplinary-specific phrases which can be found in academic communication comprise a separate category of phrases.


These tend to be shorter than the generic phrases listed in Academic Phrasebank, and typically consist of noun phrases or combinations of these. Acceptability for reusing these is determined by the extent to which they are used and understood by members of a particular academic community. Further work Development of the website xcademic is ongoing. In addition, research is currently being carried out on the ways in which experienced and less-experienced writers make use of the Academic Phrasebank.

Another project is seeking to find out more about ways in which teachers of English for academic purposes make use of this resource. Forum Linguisticum, 1, pp. Journal Second Language Writing 28 2 pp. English for Specific Purposes, 7 2 English in academic and research settings.

Most academic writers, however, appear to do one or more of the following in their introductions: Introductions to research dissertations tend to be relatively short but quite complex in terms of their functional elements. Some of the more common elements or include: Note that there may be a certain amount of overlap between some of the categories under which the phrases are listed.

Also, the order in which the different categories of phrases are shown reflects a typical order but this is far from fixed or rigid, and not all the elements are present in all introductions.

Resource of the Week #169: Academic Phrasebank

A number of analysts have identified common patterns in the introductions of research articles. This model, which utilises an ecological metaphor, has, in its simplest form, three elements or moves: Establishing the territory establishing importance of the topic, reviewing previous work Identifying a niche indicating a gap in knowledge Occupying the niche listing purpose of new research, listing questions, stating value, indicating structure of writing 1 Swales, J.

X has been the subject of many classic studies in … X has been instrumental in our understanding of … The theory of X provides a useful account of how … X has been an important concept in the study of the … Central to the entire discipline of X is the concept of … X is an increasingly important area in applied linguistics.

X has been the subject of much systematic investigation. The issue of X has received considerable critical attention. Understanding the complexity of an X is vitally important if … X has long been a question of great interest in a wide range of fields. One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is … The discovery of X in triggered a huge amount of innovative scientific inquiry. The role of X in Y has received increased attention across a number of disciplines in recent years.

Academic Phrasebank

Establishing the importance of the topic for the world or society X is fundamental to … X has a pivotal role in … X is an important aspect of … X is frequently prescribed for … X is fast becoming a key instrument in X plays a vital role in the metabolism of … X is the most axademic distributed species of … X plays a critical role in the maintenance of … Xs have emerged as powerful platforms for … X is essential for a wide range of technologies.

X can play an important role in addressing the issue of … Xs are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known.

There is evidence that X plays a crucial role in regulating … X is a common condition which has considerable impact on … In the new global economy, X has become a central issue for Determining the impacts of X on Y is important for the future of … Evidence suggests that X is among the most important factors for … X is important for a wide range of scientific and industrial processes. Xs are one of the most widely used groups of antibacterial agents and … There is a growing body of literature that recognises the importance of … X is an important component in the climate system, and plays a key role in Y.

Over the past century, there has been a dramatic increase in … Recent trends in X have led to a proliferation of studies that X proved an important literary genre in the early Y community.

The past decade has seen the rapid development of X in many … Recently, a considerable literature has grown up around the theme of … Recent developments in the field of X have led to a renewed interest in … Since it was reported inX has been attracting considerable interest. The past thirty years have seen increasingly rapid advances in the field of … The changes experienced by X over the past decade remain unprecedented.


In the last few decades, there has been a surge of interest in the effects of … The study of X, which includes Y, has grown significantly since the early s.

For more than a century, scientists have been interested in the existence of … In light of recent events in X, it is becoming extremely difficult to ignore the existence of … Highlighting an important problem X is a leading cause of … One of the main obstacles … One of the greatest challenges … A key issue is the safe disposal of … The main disadvantage of X is that … X is associated with increased risk of … X is a common disorder characterised by … It is now well established that X can impair … X is a common, chronic disease of childhood.

X has led to the decline in the population of … X is a growing public health concern worldwide. The main challenge faced by many researchers is the … X is one of the most frequently stated problems with … Lack of X has existed as a health problem for many years.

X is a major public health problem, and the main cause of … Xs are one of the most rapidly declining groups of insects in Despite its long clinical success, X has a number of problems in use.

Exposure to X has been shown to be related to phrasebbank effects in … There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged … There is an urgent need to address the safety problems caused by … Questions have been raised about the safety of the prolonged use of … The prevalence of X is increasing at an alarming rate in all age groups. Despite its safety and efficacy, X suffers from several major drawbacks: Along with this growth in X, however, there is increasing concern over … X is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern.

Academic-Phrasebank | UMIP

X and its consequences are an important, but understudied, cause for concern. X can be extremely harmful to human beings. Surveys such as that conducted by Smith have shown that … Factors found to be influencing X have been explored in several studies.

A number of cross-sectional studies suggest an association between X and Y… Studies over the past two decades have provided important information on … A considerable amount of literature has been published on X.

These studies … In the past two decades, a number of researchers have sought to determine … In previous studies of X, different variables have been found to be related to The first serious discussions and analyses of X emerged during the s with … There have been a number of longitudinal studies involving X that have reported … Xs were reported in the first studies of Y e. What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that investigate how … Acadeimc One major issue in early X research concerned To date there has been little agreement on what The issue has grown phrasebani importance in light of recent There has been disagreement on the criteria for defining X In the literature on X, the relative importance of Y is debated.

One observer has already drawn attention to the paradox in Questions have been raised about the use of animal subjects in In many Xs, a debate is taking place between Ys and Zs concerning Debate continues about the best strategies for acadwmic management of There has been much division between historians on the subject of … This concept has recently been challenged by X studies demonstrating The debate about X has gained fresh prominence with many arguing that More recently, literature has emerged that offers contradictory findings about Scholars have long debated the impact of X on the creation and acacemic of … One of the most significant current discussions in legal and moral philosophy is The relationship between X and Y has attracted conflicting interpretations from … One major theoretical issue that has dominated the field for many years concerns